Earth, Ecology and Environmental sciences

May 02, 2024 - 16 h 00

IRBI - Salle séminaire Faculté des Sciences et Techniques
Avenue Monge, Parc Grandmont
37000 Tours

2nd joint Workshop of the IUSS Working Groups Digital Soil Mapping and Global Soil Map
February 07, 2023 - February 09, 2023

Auditorium du Musée des Beaux Arts d'Orléans
1 rue Fernand Rabier
45000 Orléans

Dr Dominique Arrouays & Anne Richer de Forges

Mauro Simonato
Laure Sauné
Carole Kerdelhué
Emmanuelle Magnoux
Jérôme Rousselet
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Climate change is influencing population dynamics of several pest insect species leading to the expansion of their range. Range expansion can be driven also by human-mediated dispersal, with the establishment of new insect populations in suitable areas far from their native range. In this process, interactions between insects and their natural enemies can change due to new environmental conditions or to different rate of dispersion. In recent years, pine processionary moth (PPM), one of the main forest pests in the Mediterranean region, is expanding its range favored by both higher winter mean temperatures and accidental human-mediated transportation. Here we outlined the genetic structure of PPM along its range in France using 23 microsatellites loci, characterizing the main patterns of expansion of this species and identifying the source populations of new colonies in the expansion areas. These data can be employed for developing assignment tools to genetically characterize PPM for a quick identification of their origin area. Finally, we developed a new set of microsatellite primers for the PPM specialist egg-parasitoid in order to track its dispersion following its host in the expanding areas. The low genetic variability found, not directly useful for tracking parasitoid expansion, shed light on the role of bacterial endosymbionts in the population genetic structure of this species.

Cyrille B. K. Rathgeber
Patrick Fonti
Vladimir V. Shishov
Philippe Rozenberg
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This special issue of Annals of Forest Science compiles ten papers on “Wood formation and tree adaptation to climate”, which were presented at “Le Studium” International Conference in May 2018 in Orléans (France). These papers present observational, experimental and modelling studies investigating the influence of climatic changes on treegrowth from the hour to the century, and from the cell to the landscape.

Vladimir V. Shishov
Ivan I. Tychkov
Margarita I. Popkova
Minhui He
Bao Yang
Philippe Rozenberg
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The project addresses a fundamental problem of forest reaction forecast to the climate change and increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases for the terrestrial ecosystems of the Earth. The main target is to produce a retrospective assessment and a short-term forecast of annual tree-ring productivity (seasonal cell production) of the major conifer plant species in terrestrial forest ecosystems around Eurasia forced by climate and non-climatic factors. The analysis is based on an Interactive Information platform “Global Tree-Ring Growth Evolution Neural Network” ( and datasets available for the European and Asian dendroecological test-polygons. To achieve the goal of the project, we testified the Vaganov-Shaskin model and its parametrization, as a part of the developing IT system, based on direct long-term field observations for the tree-ring sites in Europe and Asia. As a result of the fellowship four papers were published in high impacted ISI journals. Moreover, a special issue of the ISI journal “Annals of Forest Science” is prepared.

Natalia Kirichenko
Alain Roques
Sylvie Augustin
Carlos Lopez-Vaamonde
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Historical herbaria collected around the world are valuable source of data for studying past communities of folivore organisms and tracking their distributions through the time. Here we examined the world biggest herbarium collection stored in the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Paris, France) in order to explore past Tilia-feeding endophage complexes and their populations in the Holarctic and clarify the expansion history of the lime leafminer, Phyllonorycter issikii Kumata, 1963 (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), an invasive pest in Europe damaging limes, Tilia spp. (Malvaceae).

Agnieszka Synowiec
Christophe Hano
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During this fellowship I performed several greenhouse and laboratory experiments, aiming at assessing the phytotoxic and microbiological effects of microencapsulated peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) essential oil (MPO). The different doses of MPO were applied in the pot experiments either into vermiculite or top layer of arable soils. As the acceptor-species, I used four maize cultivars, one cultivar of mustard and a weed– lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.). The microbiological analyses were performed using i) commercial strain of arbuscular fungus Rhizophagus irregularis on maize roots by intersection method, and ii) natural soil-microbiota by FDA biotest. I have found, based on the ED50 analysis, that the phytotoxic effect of MPO is both dose and species as well as soil-medium dependent. The biochemical analyses revealed, that the plants’ response to the application of MPO is typical for the allelopathic stress. The microbiological responses to the MPO applications were not clear enough to conclude and should be continued further.

Juanita Mora Gomez
Qian Li
Fabien Leroy
Sébastien Gogo
Fatima Laggoun
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Peatlands are key ecosystems in the global carbon balance due in part to the slow microbial degradation of the organic matter (OM) in peat soils. Role of peatlands as powerful carbon storage systems may be threatened by climate change, leading to a potential huge release of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Our knowledge on the mechanisms behind the microbial OM degradation is still incomplete, and it is also essential to develop better management strategies and mitigate global change impacts. In the frame of the present fellowship, the microbial extracellular enzymatic mechanisms of the OM degradation in peat soil and pore water were studied in a French altered peatland, assessing changes in soil depth and warming effect during an annual cycle. Additionally, to the research programme, during the present fellowship a new technique for the host laboratory was implemented (protocol to measure extracellular enzyme activities in pore water and peat soil), the fellow participated in several conferences and seminars, three publication were or are in the process of being published, and a new project with the host laboratory is in developing.

David Giron
Géraldine Dubreuil
Alison Bennett
Franck Dedeine
Marcel Dicke
Lee A. Dyer
Matthias Erb
Marion O. Harris
Elisabeth Huguet
Isgouhi Kaloshian
Atsushi Kawakita
Carlos Lopez-Vaamonde
Todd M. Palmer
Theodora Petanidou
Michael Poulsen
Aurélien Salle
Jean-Christophe Simon
John S. Terblanche
Denis Thiery
Noah K. Whiteman
H. Arthur Woods
Sylvain Pincebourde
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There is tremendous diversity of interactions between plants and other species. These relationships range from antagonism to mutualism. Interactions of plants with members of their ecological community can lead to a profound metabolic reconfiguration of the plants’ physiology. This reconfiguration can favour beneficial organisms and deter antagonists like pathogens or herbivores. Determining the cellular and molecular dialogue between plants, microbes, and insects, and its ecological and evolutionary implications is important for understanding the options for each partner to adopt an adaptive response to its biotic environment. Moving forward, understanding how such ecological interactions are shaped by environmental change and how we potentially mitigate deleterious effects will be increasingly important. The development of integrative multidisciplinary approaches may provide new solutions to the major ecological and societal issues ahead of us. The rapid evolution of technology provides valuable tools and opens up novel ways to test hypotheses that were previously unanswerable, but requires that scientists master these tools, understand potential ethical problems flowing from their implementation, and train new generations of biologists with diverse technical skills. Here, we provide brief perspectives and discuss future promise and challenges for research on insect–plant interactions building on the 16th International Symposium on Insect–Plant interactions (SIP) meeting that was held in Tours, France (2–6 July 2017). Talks, posters, and discussions are distilled into key research areas in insect–plant interactions, highlighting the current state of the field and major challenges, and future directions for both applied and basic research.

Illia Zymak, Arnaud Sanderink, Jan Žabka, Jean-Pierre Lebreton, Bertrand Gaubicher, Anna Zymaková, Miroslav Polášek and Christelle Briois
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A scientific request for an efficient instrument for unambiguous in-situ analysis of the composition of the Solar system rises up, since an abundance of complex organic compounds at planets, moons and interplanetary medium has been experimentally confirmed. New experimental data will unveil chemical history of the Solar System and probable mechanisms of formation of extraterrestrial organic compounds. A space-grade Orbitrap™-based high-resolution mass spectrometer will allow to obtain required data. In scope of this research project, Lab-CosmOrbitrap and OLYMPIA mass analyzer instruments developed within the CosmOrbitrap project were optimized. New sampling systems and ionization mechanisms proposed for the future space-grade instruments have been developed and evaluated. Experimental calibration data for solid (the real Moon fragment) and gaseous samples (He, C2H4, N2 and CO) required for the currently designed space instruments (CRATER, CORALS and HANKA) were measured.

Max R. McGillen, Hajar Elothmani, Yangang Ren, Zhou Li, Mahmoud Idir, Souad El Hajjaji, Véronique Daële, Akkihebbal R. Ravishankara, Wahid Mellouki
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Oxidation of SO2 to sulfuric acid impacts acid precipitation and aerosol nucleation in Earth’s atmosphere in remote and polluted environments.  This oxidation can take place in both the liquid and gas phase.  Only the gas-phase oxidation is expected to lead to new particles because of the clustering reactions of H2SO4. This aerosol nucleation has a major effect upon air quality and Earth’s radiative balance, and is of crucial importance to the chemistry of the atmosphere. 
The rate limiting step in this process is the reaction of OH radicals with SO2 to form HSO3. The pressure- and temperature-dependent reaction of OH + SO2 has been studied many times previously – since its importance was first recognized in the 1970s. Notwithstanding, some of the most recent literature has cast doubt on much of this data, especially under conditions that are relevant to atmospheric chemistry. 
Here, we present measurements of the rate coefficient using the pulsed laser photolysis–laser induced fluorescence technique as a function of temperature (249–373 K) and of pressure in helium, argon, nitrogen and oxygen bath gases (30–600 Torr). In addition, relative rate measurements using a chamber at 760 Torr (N2, O2 and air) were also performed to corroborate our absolute observations. By utilizing these new data, together with the available literature data, an updated pressure- and temperature-dependent parameterization will be provided. This allows the atmospheric impact of this reaction to be constrained with a new level of certainty.

Earth, Ecology and Environmental sciences