LE STUDIUM Multidisciplinary Journal

Download PDF

Historical herbaria collected around the world are valuable source of data for studying past communities of folivore organisms and tracking their distributions through the time. Here we examined the world biggest herbarium collection stored in the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Paris, France) in order to explore past Tilia-feeding endophage complexes and their populations in the Holarctic and clarify the expansion history of the lime leafminer, Phyllonorycter issikii Kumata, 1963 (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), an invasive pest in Europe damaging limes, Tilia spp. (Malvaceae).


Download PDF

This article presents a report of the postdoctoral research entitled “Teach-ing, research and university extension from a perspective of Design for social innovation”, conducted at the ÉCOLAB/ÉSAD, Le Studium Loire Valley, Institute for Advanced Studies, in Orléans, France, between April and September 2018. The report considers the experiences shared throughout the program, the updated literature review and an account of my experience as a professor and researcher at the Graduate Program in Design of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, School of Fine Arts, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil


Download PDF

For efficient and successful mechanical energy harvesting, a configuration that has garnered much focus in recent research is the piezoelectric nanogenerator. The concept of the nanogenerator has shown potential for harvesting energy from the ambient environment to power systems. Kinetic energy harvesting nanogenrators based on the piezoelectric properties of ZnO nanowires have attracted much interest. The aim of this work is to fabricate hydrothermally synthesized ZnO nanowire-based nanogenerators in order to control the average diameter of wires and also the quality of wire alignment. Intrinsic point defects as well as extrinsic defects introduced via doping of transition metal ions by no doubt play a crucial role not only the amplitude of generated voltage signal from nanogenerators but also the conductivity of ZnO. Despite its advantages, the lack of fundamental knowledge about intrinsic defects and doping ions presents an obstacle to the development of practical devices such as nanogenerators which requires high conductivity for high performance. The difficulty to make reliable ZnO nanowire based nanogenerators is closely related to the intrinsic and extrinsic defects specifically interstitials, vacancies and metal ions (i.e., Mn, Fe). This research provides a fundamental understanding of defects in ZnO that could lead to reliable devices using the peculiarity of nanogenerator. The results of electronic (electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy), optical (photoluminescence spectroscopy) and electrical (impedance spectroscopy) characterization investigations could give the basis for the industrial and economic manufacturing of ZnO nanowires. This work provides physical understanding of the defect structures in nanoscale wire form of ZnO.


Download PDF

The fluoroalkyl group plays an important role in the design of novel pharmacologically active agents since its introduction into organic compounds often leads to improved potency, stability and activity. Herein we wish to report an application of fluoroalkyl ketimines in decarboxylative Mannich reaction with a focus on the chemistry of unprotected NH-ketimines and heterocyclic ketimines. This study addresses the influence of the N-unprotected form of the ketimine function on the efficiency and selectivity of decarboxylative addition of malonic acid and its derivatives. The methods developed provide straightforward access to a range of valuable fluoroalkyl -amino acids and their derivatives promising as novel organofluorine building blocks.


Download PDF

Novel cost-efficient Fenton-like catalysts were prepared for the degradation of organic molecules in aqueous solutions. Porous activated carbons (ACs) were directly impregnated with Fe2+ solutions of different concentrations using the wet impregnation method. Their efficiency, as Fenton-like catalysts, was studied. Photo-Fenton tests were performed to establish the performance of the prepared Fe-impregnated ACs in relation to the degradation of organic micropollutants in aqueous solution, under different conditions. Photo-catalytic tests were carried out by means of a laboratory photo-reactor. The influence of several parameters such as solution pH value, initial concentration of the model pollutant, and hydrogen peroxide dose on the process performance was investigated. The ACs and prepared catalysts were characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms at 77K, FTIR, SEM, and thermogravimetric analyses. The total Fe content of the synthesized composites was estimated by the phenanthroline method using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Photo-catalytic tests were performed in monosolute or mix solutions of MPs in order to compare the efficiency of various conventional AOPs with that of photo-Fenton-peroxone process. The results show an increase in the degradation rate in case of the heterogeneous photo-Fenton-peroxone process.


Download PDF

The aim of our project was to investigate on the book trade during the Renaissance. It had focused on the relations between France and the Low Countries which have never been the subject of systematic analysis. The study of the book market is not only a chapter of economic history; it is also an accurate point of view to think about the most fundamental cultural trajectories. As a consequence, the ambition of this project was to renew our knowledge of cultural exchanges between France and the Low Countries through the study of the circulation of books between these two territories.


Download PDF

ABSTRACT The combination of stem cell therapy with a supportive scaffold is a promising approach to improving tissue engineering. We aim producing novel material composites that may serve as artificial Extracellular Matrix (ECM). The natural ECM is composed of an organic (protein, polysaccharide) and inorganic (i.e. hydroxy-apatite) components that when combined with the cells form a tissue. ECM is an integral part of every tissue that besides providing the environment for cells to grow, it also improves tissue’s mechanical properties. It provides elasticity, flexibility and durability for the tissue. Tissue engineering approaches utilize artificial materials (biomaterials) as a substitute of natural ECM. The process of producing tissue scaffolds obtained from biodegradable polymers has become a very intensively researched area for the past several years. Most of the current work focuses on the design and preparation of scaffolds with use of various production technologies and different natural materials like chitosan, collagen, elastin and different synthetic ones, like polymer polycaprolactone (PCL), poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). The objective of this study was to check the impact of the biomaterials on various cell types, and compare their growth pattern. Biodegradable PCL, and five of its hybrids: PCL+SHAP (SHAP, synthetic hydroxyapatite), PCL+NHAP (NHAP, natural hydroxyapatite), PCL+PLGA (PLGA, poly(lactide-co-glycolide), PCL+CaCO3, PCL+SHAP+NHAP+CaCO3 as well as one non degradable biomaterial: polyacrylonitryl (PAN), were tested. For the experiments four different cell types were used: human dermal skin fibroblasts, B16F10 (mouse melanoma cells), HSkMEC (Human Skin Microvascular Endothelial Cells) and HEPC-CB1 (Human Endothelial Progenitor Cells –Cord Blood 1). Impacts of the biomaterials on cells were assessed: 1) by measuring cytotoxic effect of the biomaterials liquid extracts and 2) by direct contact test. The ability of cells to attach to the biomaterials was tested as well as cells’ potential to growth and proliferate on the surface of the biomaterials. None of the tested biomaterials was cytotoxic towards the tested cells, making them a potential valuable raw ingredient for 3D scaffold development that would find its applications in tissue engineering. The differences in efficiency of cells attachment and proliferation between tested biomaterials and cells lines were observed. In addition, a stimulating effect of the biomaterials on cells growth was also detected.


Download PDF

Throughout the 20th century, an impressive amount of scholarship was devoted to the origin of the concepts of the prince and sovereignty. By focusing on the ancient and mediaeval sources of 16th-century authors, I tried to determine the degree to which the modern fate of the notion of power depended on ancient and mediaeval debates. I paid special attention to the ethical, anthropological, and legal questions implied in the European encounter with the ‘New World’. Despite its broad relevance to studies on early modern era, this subject has often been disregarded with respect to the history of the concept of power. My analysis helped me trace this subject within the most central debates of the last decades of the 16th century. Through the authors of this time, I showed the interrelation between the discussion on Native Americans and a variety of sources of modern history of ideas, which span early-modern philosophy, cosmology, theology, and public and international law.


Download PDF

The transition in the 10th century from the centralised Carolingian state to the decentralised feudal principalities is a subject of debate among historians: was it a violent breakdown or a continuous evolution? The major problem facing historians is the scarcity of written sources. But coins are numerous and constitute a relevant source material. Indeed, Coinage is an official institution, and studying it informs us about the state of society and the organisation of the administration. The study of Norman coinage in the 10th century shows a large and well-managed production and a firm control of the circulation. Exchange fees provided income for the duke. This reflects a well-organised stable administration and an ability of controlling society, far from the chaotic, violent and anarchistic picture of early feudalism that is sometimes purported.


Download PDF

The main hypothesis of this project is connected to the notion of pre-cultural origins of the humanity, situated in the paradisaical reality, not only before the fall, but also before the invention of the human language (Adam naming the animals created by God). The myth of the pre-lapsarian unity of the human kind became crucial to the development of the European relationship with other peoples in the aftermath of the maritime discoveries in the 16th c. The examination of this topic is an important element of the projected transcultural humanities, searching to establish a comprehensive outlook of the cultural inscription and limitations of the human thought.