Earth, Ecology and Environmental sciences

Interesting lessons we can learn using past herbarium collections for studying forest insect pest invasions


ABSTRACT

Historical herbaria collected around the world are valuable source of data for studying past communities of folivore organisms and tracking their distributions through the time. Here we examined the world biggest herbarium collection stored in the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Paris, France) in order to explore past Tilia-feeding endophage complexes and their populations in the Holarctic and clarify the expansion history of the lime leafminer, Phyllonorycter issikii Kumata, 1963 (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), an invasive pest in Europe damaging limes, Tilia spp. (Malvaceae).

Global Tree-Ring Growth Evolution Neural Network (VS-GENN)


ABSTRACT

The project addresses a fundamental problem of forest reaction forecast to the climate change and increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases for the terrestrial ecosystems of the Earth. The main target is to produce a retrospective assessment and a short-term forecast of annual tree-ring productivity (seasonal cell production) of the major conifer plant species in terrestrial forest ecosystems around Eurasia forced by climate and non-climatic factors. The analysis is based on an Interactive Information platform “Global Tree-Ring Growth Evolution Neural Network” (www.vs-genn.ru) and datasets available for the European and Asian dendroecological test-polygons. To achieve the goal of the project, we testified the Vaganov-Shaskin model and its parametrization, as a part of the developing IT system, based on direct long-term field observations for the tree-ring sites in Europe and Asia. As a result of the fellowship four papers were published in high impacted ISI journals. Moreover, a special issue of the ISI journal “Annals of Forest Science” is prepared.

Wood formation and tree adaptation to climate


ABSTRACT

This special issue of Annals of Forest Science compiles ten papers on “Wood formation and tree adaptation to climate”, which were presented at “Le Studium” International Conference in May 2018 in Orléans (France). These papers present observational, experimental and modelling studies investigating the influence of climatic changes on treegrowth from the hour to the century, and from the cell to the landscape.

Tracking the colonization patterns of an expanding forest pest and its natural enemies using molecular markers


ABSTRACT

Climate change is influencing population dynamics of several pest insect species leading to the expansion of their range. Range expansion can be driven also by human-mediated dispersal, with the establishment of new insect populations in suitable areas far from their native range. In this process, interactions between insects and their natural enemies can change due to new environmental conditions or to different rate of dispersion. In recent years, pine processionary moth (PPM), one of the main forest pests in the Mediterranean region, is expanding its range favored by both higher winter mean temperatures and accidental human-mediated transportation. Here we outlined the genetic structure of PPM along its range in France using 23 microsatellites loci, characterizing the main patterns of expansion of this species and identifying the source populations of new colonies in the expansion areas. These data can be employed for developing assignment tools to genetically characterize PPM for a quick identification of their origin area. Finally, we developed a new set of microsatellite primers for the PPM specialist egg-parasitoid in order to track its dispersion following its host in the expanding areas. The low genetic variability found, not directly useful for tracking parasitoid expansion, shed light on the role of bacterial endosymbionts in the population genetic structure of this species.

Prof. Edward McCauley

From: 
University of Calgary
In residence: 
IRBI

Jérôme Casas

Dr Jérôme Casas
Scientific Field: 
Earth, Ecology and Environmental sciences
Laboratory: 
IRBI

Prof. Clive Oppenheimer

From: 
University of Cambridge
In residence: 
ISTO
Project title: 
Evaluation of the volatile yield related to vocanic activity and its impact on troposheric chemistry with emphasis sulphur and halogens (Cl, F, Br..) in alkalic magmas. Experimental and numerical constraints.

Dr Bruno Scaillet

Dr Bruno Scaillet
Scientific Field: 
Earth, Ecology and Environmental sciences
Laboratory: 
ISTO

Dr Gerard Klaver

Prof. Valery Terwilliger