Scientific publications

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The starting point for this paper are the archives produced by the so-called Council of Troubles, the special court established by Philip II in response to the uprising and misbehaviour of parts of the population of the Low Countries in the years 1566–1567. This institution remained active from 1567 to 1576 and was commanded by the Duke of Alva. In particular, being well aware of the potential of those cultural objects and carriers of ideas, it watched very closely the production, the distribution as well as the possession of books. The documents contain inventories of thousands of books – either forbidden or not – found in bookshops located in the southern provinces. I will focus my paper on the 12 bookshops located in Brussels visited in 1568 by religious authorities, and especially in that of Michiel van Hamont, printer from 1557 to 1585. The repressive measures taken by the Duke of Alva will be the entry point of a study on the state of book culture in Brussels during the last third of the sixteenth century.


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Avec pas moins de quelque six cents éditions relevat de corpus galénique recensés au XVIe siècle, il apparaît sans contredit que le modèle médical dominant à la Renaissance reste toujours bel et bien celui de Galien et de sa théorie des humeurs. La plus ancienne édition latine remonte au 27 août 1490 et est sortie des presses vénitiennes de Philippus Pincius (ou Pintius). Il s'agit de la première impression des oeuvres complètes du maître de Pergame, éditées en latin par le médecin de Brescia Diomède Bonardus et reproduites en deux volumes imposants au format in-folio. Le premier tome compte 224 feuilles, le second 248 ; soit un volume total de 236 feuilles de papier pour imprimer un seul exemplaire. Le corpus galénique a été classé par l'éditeur selon des critères thématiques et de difficultés de lecture. Une vingtaine d'autres Opera omnia verront le jour au cours du XVIe siècle (dont deux en grec), imprimées presque exclusivement à Venise. Le classement établi par Johannes Baptista Montanus pour celles parues en 1541 chez les Giunta servira de modèle pour les éditions ultérieures. Il repose sur cinq critères : thématique, difficulté de lecture, authenticité, genre littéraire et matériel. 

 

 


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Per collocare la sensibilità formale dei «due Guidi» all'interno del panorama duecentesco, occorre avere presente almeno a grandi linee quest'ultimo, e sarà quindi necessario in via preliminare darne conto 1. Anticipando le conclusioni, si può dire che il secondo Guido, Cavalcanti, è un caso particolare, una sorta di picco attorno a cui si addensano una serie di fenomeni riconducibili a una casistica che praticamente non si dà altrove. Al netto di ciò, per quel che riguarda la sensibilità metrica Guinizzelli e Cavalcanti si trovano sullo stesso versante, e la loro posizione condivisa sembra essere la logica conseguenza del fatto che appartenevano alla stessa classe sociale: quella dei milites 2. Il legame tra la maniera in cui i rimatori medievali si rappresentavano le forme da essi adottate e la loro posizione sociale ha le sue origini nel primo luogo di produzione e consumo di lirica cortese in volgare, le corti della Francia meridionale, dove notoriamente il pubblico veniva in contatto con i componimenti poetici in forme collettive, performative, sceniche, 1 Le ricerche che mi hanno portato a delineare la mappa di un panorama generale della sensibilità formale degli autori di lirica in Italia, dai poeti federiciani a Petrarca, sono state condotte grazie alla vincita della Fellowship Marco Praloran 2013-2015, e sono sfociate in un libro in questo momento in lavorazione presso la SISMEL (Camboni Maria Clotilde, Fine musica), a cui rimando per ulteriori approfondimenti. 2 Per il contesto sociale di Guinizzelli e Cavalcanti, cfr. da ultimo Milani Giuliano, Le contexte e Diacciati Silvia, Guido e i Cavalcanti.


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À partir des années 1565-1566, les anciens Pays-Bas furent secoués par une vaste contestation politico-religieuse dirigée contre Philippe II. Pour réprimer cette agitation, le souverain mit en place un tribunal d’exception, le Conseil des troubles, et le plaça sous l’autorité directe de Fernando Alvarez de Tolède, duc d’Albe et gouverneur général des Pays-Bas. Cette institution, active de 1567 à 1576, surveilla de très près la fabrication, la vente et la possession de livres, en raison du danger potentiel de ce véhicule culturel qu’est l’imprimé. Ainsi, à la requête du duc d’Albe, des inquisiteurs furent envoyés en 1569 dans différentes provinces des Pays-Bas espagnols afin d’examiner les fonds des libraires et des imprimeurs et de dépister les livres hérétiques. Ces documents offrent un instantané inédit des livres en circulation dans de nombreuses villes de ce territoire. Je me penche uniquement sur la situation de la ville de Mons. L’inventaire exécuté par les envoyés du duc d’Albe décrit un peu plus de 1600 livres. Ce document précise non seulement le nom des auteurs et les titres, mais aussi les adresses bibliographiques des ouvrages listés. Le soin et la rigueur dont a fait preuve le notaire dans l’exécution de sa tâche font de cette source un document de premier ordre pour l’étude du marché du livre en Hainaut dans le second tiers du XVIe siècle en général et, plus particulièrement, pour le livre médical. On pourra notamment découvrir quels sont les auteurs et les genres les plus prisés, le poids de la littérature savante par rapport à celle de vulgarisation ainsi que l’origine géographique de ces livres.


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The goal of this session is to provide an overview of the principles of language intervention for children from ages 3–18 years of age and review the evidence base for selection of treatments for language disorders in preschool-aged and school-aged children, with special attention to interventions aimed at addressing pragmatic and social communication disorders.


Avian eggshell formation reveals a new paradigm for vertebrate mineralization via vesicular amorphous calcium carbonate


Lilian Stapane, Nathalie Le Roy, Jacky Ezagal, Alejandro B. Rodriguez-Navarro, Valérie Labas, Lucie Combes-Soia, Maxwell T.Hincke, Joël Gautron

DOI https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA120.014542
Scientific Field Life & Health Sciences
Fellow Prof. Maxwell Hincke
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Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is an unstable mineral phase, which is progressively transformed into aragonite or calcite in biomineralization of marine invertebrate shells or avian eggshells, respectively. We have previously proposed a model of vesicular transport to provide stabilized ACC in chicken uterine fluid where eggshell mineralization takes place. Herein, we report further experimental support for this model. We confirmed the presence of extracellular vesicles (EVs) using transmission EM and showed high levels of mRNA of vesicular markers in the oviduct segments where eggshell mineralization occurs. We also demonstrate that EVs contain ACC in uterine fluid using spectroscopic analysis. Moreover, proteomics and immunofluorescence confirmed the presence of major vesicular, mineralization-specific and eggshell matrix proteins in the uterus and in purified EVs. We propose a comprehensive role for EVs in eggshell mineralization, in which annexins transfer calcium into vesicles and carbonic anhydrase 4 catalyzes the formation of bicarbonate ions (HCO[Formula: see text]), for accumulation of ACC in vesicles. We hypothesize that ACC is stabilized by ovalbumin and/or lysozyme or additional vesicle proteins identified in this study. Finally, EDIL3 and MFGE8 are proposed to serve as guidance molecules to target EVs to the mineralization site. We therefore report for the first-time experimental evidence for the components of vesicular transport to supply ACC in a vertebrate model of biomineralization.


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The separation of arma and amor that can be found in the chivalric tales of the fifteenth century allows the authors of these works to devote as much attention to the relationships between knights as to those between a knight and his lady. In particular, the bonds between knights who are also brothers are examined in various texts of the period, such as the Burgundian prose reworking of Florence de Rome, in which the brothers Milon and Esmeré, two young knights from Hungary, vie with each other for the hand of the eponymous heroine. In the version of this romance illustrated by the artist known as the « Wavrin Master » (Chantilly, Bibliothèque du château, ms. 652) the tensions between brotherhood and knighthood are foregrounded in both the narrative and its accompanying miniatures to the extent of taking on a political and ethical dimension. As I argue here, the way in which the two brothers act towards each other can be seen as an indicator of their suitability not only as the lady’s prospective husband but also as the future ruler of a realm, thus providing a trenchant and incisive lesson on chivalric mores at the end of the Middle Ages.


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Background: This paper would be a starting point addressed to a methodology to minimize the effects on livings of man made Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) pollution. Methods: Given that previous literature highlighted that the most relevant EMFs effects on biological systems can be due to resonance phenomena between electromagnetic field and organic matter, it was proposed here an algorithm to obtain values of frequencies of an applied electromagnetic field far from resonant frequencies, depending on the natural frequencies and viscous damper of a biological system. These frequencies have been named non-resonant frequencies. Results: The displacement of the α-helices in cellular membrane channels due to EMFs has been proposed as a relevant parameter for quantifying the result of the interaction between an applied EMF and organic matter, in order to find both the natural frequencies of a biological system and the resonant frequencies at which α-helices displacement should be maximum. Conclusion: The non-resonant frequencies can be obtained using the algorithm proposed here.


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At the colonization site of a foreign entity, plant cells alter their trajectory of growth and development. The resulting structure – a plant gall – accommodates various needs of the foreigner, which are phylogenetically diverse: viruses, bacteria, protozoa, oomycetes, true fungi, parasitic plants, and many types of animals, including rotifers, nematodes, insects, and mites. The plant species that make galls also are diverse. We assume gall production costs the plant. All is well if the foreigner provides a gift that makes up for the cost. Nitrogen‐fixing nodule‐inducing bacteria provide nutritional services. Gall wasps pollinate fig trees. Unfortunately for plants, most galls are made for foes, some of which are deeply studied pathogens and pests: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Rhodococcus fascians, Xanthomonas citri, Pseudomonas savastanoi, Pantoea agglomerans, ‘Candidatus’ phytoplasma, rust fungi, Ustilago smuts, root knot and cyst nematodes, and gall midges. Galls are an understudied phenomenon in plant developmental biology. We propose gall inception for discovering unifying features of the galls that plants make for friends and foes, talk about molecules that plants and gall‐inducers use to get what they want from each other, raise the question of whether plants colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi respond in a gall‐like manner, and present a research agenda.


Simulation and Theory of Antibody Binding to Crowded Antigen-Covered Surfaces


Cristiano de Michele, Paolo de los Rios, Giuseppe Foffi, Francesco Piazza, Yanay Ofran

DOI https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004752
Scientific Field Life & Health Sciences
Fellow Dr Cristiano De Michele
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In this paper we introduce a fully flexible coarse-grained model of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies parametrized directly on cryo-EM data and simulate the binding dynamics of many IgGs to antigens adsorbed on a surface at increasing densities. Moreover, we work out a theoretical model that allows to explain all the features observed in the simulations. Our combined computational and theoretical framework is in excellent agreement with surface-plasmon resonance data and allows us to establish a number of important results. (i) Internal flexibility is key to maximize bivalent binding, flexible IgGs being able to explore the surface with their second arm in search for an available hapten. This is made clear by the strongly reduced ability to bind with both arms displayed by artificial IgGs designed to rigidly keep a prescribed shape. (ii) The large size of IgGs is instrumental to keep neighboring molecules at a certain distance (surface repulsion), which essentially makes antigens within reach of the second Fab always unoccupied on average. (iii) One needs to account independently for the thermodynamic and geometric factors that regulate the binding equilibrium. The key geometrical parameters, besides excluded-volume repulsion, describe the screening of free haptens by neighboring bound antibodies. We prove that the thermodynamic parameters govern the low-antigen-concentration regime, while the surface screening and repulsion only affect the binding at high hapten densities. Importantly, we prove that screening effects are concealed in relative measures, such as the fraction of bivalently bound antibodies. Overall, our model provides a valuable, accurate theoretical paradigm beyond existing frameworks to interpret experimental profiles of antibodies binding to multi-valent surfaces of different sorts in many contexts.