LE STUDIUM Multidisciplinary Journal

Yiming Chen
Driss Boutat
Dayan Liu
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During the past decades, fractional calculus has gained great interest and success in the field of automatic control. The research project was on numerical algorithms and observer design for fractional order systems. Various effective algorithms have been proposed to simulate different kinds of systems. Accurate and robust algebraic observers have been designed to estimate useful system information in noisy environment. An international conference has been held with the support of the project, which provided a platform for researchers to exchange results and advanced technology. Moreover, this project has provided an international collaboration opportunity for faculties and students both from INSA Centre Val de Loire and Yanshan University in China.

William G. C. Horsnell
Murray E. Selkirk
Luke B. Roberts
Corinna Schnoeller
Matthew Darby
Claire Mackowiak
Delphine Sedda
Valerie Quesniaux
Bernhard Ryffel
Rachel Vaux
Rita Berkachy
Kleoniki Gounaris
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Group 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2s) responses drive type 2 immunity against helminths and are initiated by host alarmin release. Here we show that in addition to signature type 2 cytokines ILC2 also synthesise and release acetylcholine (ACh).  ILC2 ACh synthesis (defined by choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expression) following Nb or Alternaria challenge revealed pronounced ACh synthesis in ILC2 when compared to other immune cell populations. In vivo alarmin cytokine challenges selectively induced this ILC2 ACh responses. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection of RORCreChATLoxP mice (which have a targeted disruption of the ILC2 ACh response) resulted in higher intestinal helminth burdens than in control mice.  This impaired control of infection associated with reduced ILC2 and CD4 IL-13 production. Adoptive transfer of  RORCreChATLoxP ILC2s into RAG2-/-IL-2rg-/- resulted in subsequent infection having a higher intestinal burden than in ChATloxp recipeints. These data identify ILC2-derived ACh as a novel axis required for optimal type 2 immunity.

Tijen Tunali
Gulcin Erdi
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The proliferation of visual practices, engagements, and tactics on the streets and plazas of the cities connect art to the political constitution of local struggles on the one hand, and the global grassroots politics of the social movements, on the other. This project investigates the ideologies, relationships, meanings and practices that arise from the diverse interactions among the three social spheres: urban space, art, and social movements. In an innovative and multidisciplinary fashion, it addresses the pressing question in humanities and social sciences : How does art, as a cultural form, partake in contemporary urban transformations and social struggle ?

The aesthetic dimension in the political and the political dimension in art coincide in the contested terrain of the urban public space. This proposed project does not repeat the exhausted questions, such as whether contemporary art can be an impetus for social change or how much it is involved in politics. Instead, it analyzes how art merges with new political formations and becomes a vital part of the constitution of a new understanding of political participation. It further engages in art’s critical, aesthetic, dialogical, communicative and creative powers from the perspective of social mobilization and creation of political commons.

The prolific significance of this project is in its multi-perspective approach to bring together three different dimensions in the intersection of art, urban space and social movements: “art and neoliberal urban transformation,” “urban art interventions” and “art in social movements.” The contribution that the project intends to make for state of the art is its ability to bring together the theories and discussions on art’s twofold role in urban planning and collective resistance, its debated function as an aesthetic intervention in the public space and its envisaged place in urban social movements.

Norinne Lacerda-Queiroz
Mélanie Meda
Florence Savigny
Nicolas Riteau
Valérie Quesniaux
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Malaria is one of the most important parasitic infection in the world. Cerebral and pulmonary complications may occur after infection and are often lethal. Immune response plays an important role in controlling malaria infection; however, excessive inflammatory response can lead to severe disease. The present work aims to decipher the cellular and molecular events associated with brain and pulmonary pathology in response to blood stage Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infection. PbA infection in C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice induces experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), associated with strong pro-inflammatory response, brain damage, as well as paralysis, coma early death (around day 7 p.i.). Interestingly, IFNγ receptor deficient mice (IFNγR1-/-, C57BL/6 background) are resistant to ECM and died at a later time-point, due to the hyperparasitaemia and severe anemia. Here, we addressed the impact of IFNγR1 deficiency in the development of pulmonary damage during PbA infection. At day 7 post-infection, the broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) allowed the quantitative analysis of total cells and proteins in the broncho-alveolar space of the animals. In addition, histological analysis and Western blot were performed to compare the cerebral and pulmonary compartments. As compared to PbA-infected WT mice, the histological sections confirmed a less intense accumulation of leukocytes as well as an absence of hemorrhages in the brains of IFNγR1-/- mice. In addition, the quantification of pro-apoptotic proteins (Granzyme B and cleaved caspase-3) in olfactory bulbs showed lower levels in IFNγR1-/- mice. While IFNγR1 deficient mice were fully resistant to brain pathology, those mice were partially protected for pulmonary damage, as observed by the levels of Granzyme B and cleaved caspase-3 in the lung parenchyma, leukocyte number in the broncho-alveolar space and pulmonary edema.

Natalia Kirichenko
Alain Roques
Sylvie Augustin
Carlos Lopez-Vaamonde
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Historical herbaria collected around the world are valuable source of data for studying past communities of folivore organisms and tracking their distributions through the time. Here we examined the world biggest herbarium collection stored in the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Paris, France) in order to explore past Tilia-feeding endophage complexes and their populations in the Holarctic and clarify the expansion history of the lime leafminer, Phyllonorycter issikii Kumata, 1963 (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), an invasive pest in Europe damaging limes, Tilia spp. (Malvaceae).

Beany Monteiro
Ludovic Duhem
Jacqueline Febvre
Aurélien Montagu
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This article presents a report of the postdoctoral research entitled “Teach-ing, research and university extension from a perspective of Design for social innovation”, conducted at the ÉCOLAB/ÉSAD, Le Studium Loire Valley, Institute for Advanced Studies, in Orléans, France, between April and September 2018. The report considers the experiences shared throughout the program, the updated literature review and an account of my experience as a professor and researcher at the Graduate Program in Design of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, School of Fine Arts, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Emre Erdem
Camille Justeau
Guylaine Poulin-Vittrant
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For efficient and successful mechanical energy harvesting, a configuration that has garnered much focus in recent research is the piezoelectric nanogenerator. The concept of the nanogenerator has shown potential for harvesting energy from the ambient environment to power systems. Kinetic energy harvesting nanogenrators based on the piezoelectric properties of ZnO nanowires have attracted much interest. The aim of this work is to fabricate hydrothermally synthesized ZnO nanowire-based nanogenerators in order to control the average diameter of wires and also the quality of wire alignment. Intrinsic point defects as well as extrinsic defects introduced via doping of transition metal ions by no doubt play a crucial role not only the amplitude of generated voltage signal from nanogenerators but also the conductivity of ZnO. Despite its advantages, the lack of fundamental knowledge about intrinsic defects and doping ions presents an obstacle to the development of practical devices such as nanogenerators which requires high conductivity for high performance. The difficulty to make reliable ZnO nanowire based nanogenerators is closely related to the intrinsic and extrinsic defects specifically interstitials, vacancies and metal ions (i.e., Mn, Fe). This research provides a fundamental understanding of defects in ZnO that could lead to reliable devices using the peculiarity of nanogenerator. The results of electronic (electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy), optical (photoluminescence spectroscopy) and electrical (impedance spectroscopy) characterization investigations could give the basis for the industrial and economic manufacturing of ZnO nanowires. This work provides physical understanding of the defect structures in nanoscale wire form of ZnO.

Volodymyr Sukach
Sergii Melnykov
Sylvain Bertho
Pascal Retailleau
Mykhailo Vovk
Isabelle Gillaizeau
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The fluoroalkyl group plays an important role in the design of novel pharmacologically active agents since its introduction into organic compounds often leads to improved potency, stability and activity. Herein we wish to report an application of fluoroalkyl ketimines in decarboxylative Mannich reaction with a focus on the chemistry of unprotected NH-ketimines and heterocyclic ketimines. This study addresses the influence of the N-unprotected form of the ketimine function on the efficiency and selectivity of decarboxylative addition of malonic acid and its derivatives. The methods developed provide straightforward access to a range of valuable fluoroalkyl -amino acids and their derivatives promising as novel organofluorine building blocks.

Marius Sebastian Secula
Benoît Cagnon
Olivier Chedeville
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Novel cost-efficient Fenton-like catalysts were prepared for the degradation of organic molecules in aqueous solutions. Porous activated carbons (ACs) were directly impregnated with Fe2+ solutions of different concentrations using the wet impregnation method. Their efficiency, as Fenton-like catalysts, was studied. Photo-Fenton tests were performed to establish the performance of the prepared Fe-impregnated ACs in relation to the degradation of organic micropollutants in aqueous solution, under different conditions. Photo-catalytic tests were carried out by means of a laboratory photo-reactor. The influence of several parameters such as solution pH value, initial concentration of the model pollutant, and hydrogen peroxide dose on the process performance was investigated. The ACs and prepared catalysts were characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms at 77K, FTIR, SEM, and thermogravimetric analyses. The total Fe content of the synthesized composites was estimated by the phenanthroline method using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Photo-catalytic tests were performed in monosolute or mix solutions of MPs in order to compare the efficiency of various conventional AOPs with that of photo-Fenton-peroxone process. The results show an increase in the degradation rate in case of the heterogeneous photo-Fenton-peroxone process.

Renaud Adam
Chiara Lastraioli
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The aim of our project was to investigate on the book trade during the Renaissance. It had focused on the relations between France and the Low Countries which have never been the subject of systematic analysis. The study of the book market is not only a chapter of economic history; it is also an accurate point of view to think about the most fundamental cultural trajectories. As a consequence, the ambition of this project was to renew our knowledge of cultural exchanges between France and the Low Countries through the study of the circulation of books between these two territories.