LE STUDIUM RESEARCH FELLOW / ARD 2020 - COSMETOSCIENCES Programme
Laboratoire Biomolécules et Biotechnologies Végétales (BBV), EA 2106, Université de Tours - FR
& Laboratoire de Biologie des Ligneux et des Grandes Cultures (LBLGC), EA 1207 / INRA USC 1328, Université d'Orléans - FR
Pr Nathalie Guivarc’h (BBV, Tours) & Dr Christophe Hano
Strategies to enhance cosmeceuticals in in vitro cultures of herbal plants
Cosmeceuticals are plant derived products intended to improve the health and beauty of the skin by providing a specific result. Most of cosmeceuticals are defined by their biologically active ingredients (BAIs). Phenolic compounds are well established BAIs of these cosmeceuticals. Caffeic acid, quercetin, flavonoids, gallic acid, etc. are common phenolic compounds used in cosmeceuticals. These compounds are extracted from different plant species like Echinacea, Silybum, Linum, Citrus, etc. However, plant derived phenolic compounds are privileged in cosmetic industry due to benefits they offer. Therefore, whole cosmetic industry is looking for efficient and feasible production platforms for cost efficient production of these cosmeceuticals by herbal plants.
Use of plant cell culture technology offers an attractive alternative for the production of plant-based cosmeceuticals. Compared to field grown plants, cell cultures can be cultivated in a controlled and contained environment. Production in cell culture also offers possibilities for process optimization, independent of environmental effects, etc. Although plant cell culture technology is very widespread in phytopharmaceutical industry, but it is not yet very common in the cosmetic industry.
The problem, usually encountered by plant cell culture is the low production rate and yield of BAIs. Therefore, several strategies have been devised to enhance concentration of these compounds in cell cultures of herbal plants. Elicitation of BAIs is considered as most reliable and feasible strategy. Elicitation not only enhances biosynthesis of BAIs but also influencing their production by stimulating biomass accumulation. Elicitors are the chemical compounds from abiotic and biotic sources that can stimulate stress reponses in plants, leading to enhanced biosynthesis of BAIs. The number of parameters, such as elicitor type, dose, treatment schedule, duration of exposure are major factors influencing biosynthesis of BAIs in plant cell.